While Ong believes that the "politico-religious" approach used by Hales is worthwhile, he also believes that this approach cannot fully express the Church's relationship with the world. It cannot do so, Ong asserts, because the modern conception of the state and politics has changed as scientific discoveries have shown that human beings are only one small part of the cosmos. In fact, for a Christian such as Ong, the physical world and his relationship to that world is important, so important that as what he knows about the physical world changes through scientific discoveries, he believes that he and other Christians must change their theology to absorb those new discoveries.
The problem with Hales' approach, Ong says, is that it downplays the
Church's role by not taking into account the cosmos as the arena in which
the Church operates. While Ong acknowledges that a politico-religious
approach is necessary at the lower levels of education, for it is easy
enough for young people to understand, he would like to see adults looking
at these issues through a more complex lens. In order to have a significant
impact in the present, Ong concludes, people must have the future in mind
rather than just the past.